spacer.png, 0 kB
spacer.png, 0 kB
Home arrow About Syria arrow Geography & Population
Geography & Population

Geographical Location

North-east of the Mediterranean sea between latitudes 32o and 37o in the north and between longitudes 35o and 42o east Greenwich. Length of the coastline: 183 kms.

A Unique Position

The strategic importance of Syria is due to its unique position at the meeting point of three continents, Asia, Africa and Europe, and at the crossroads between the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Nile. The Silk Road led from China to Doura-Europos (Salhieh), from Palmyra, and Homs to Syria's coastal ports on the Mediterranean. This geographical position lent distinction to the country, not only as a trade and caravan route but also as a melting-pot of ideas, beliefs and talents.

During the Greek and Roman eras, Syria was a center for culture and politics. Several Roman emperors were natives of Syria. Greater Syria was central to the rise of the world's monotheistic religions. Christianity began its expansion from there. Antioch in the north, was the home of the first Christian community in the first century AD. The oldest churches in the world are in Syria. When Islam spread to Syria, Damascus became the capital of the Islamic Empire under the Umayyad Caliphate.

Population and Administrative Divisions

The population of the Syrian Arab Republic is about 17.5 million inhabitants, 4 million of which live in Damascus, the capital. The country is divided into 14 provinces known as governorates (muhafazat pl), each of which is divided generally into many districts and so on into towns and villages. The village is the smallest administrative unit. There are two main ports on the Mediterranean coast which are Tartoos and Lattakia. There is also Banias port which is a special port for oil exports.

The Syrian Arab Republic is located on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The borders are Turkey on the north, Iraq on the east, Palestine and Jordan on the south and the Mediterranean Sea on the west.

The general area of the Syrian Arab Republic is 18517971 hectares, 6 millions agricultural lands and the rest are mountains and semi-deserts. The Syrian semi-desert is good for plants and is used as grass lands in case of enough rain. Geographically, Syria can be divided into 4 regions:

  1. Coast region enclosed between mountains and sea.
  2. Mountain region including mountains and heights stretching from north to south parallel to Mediterranean Sea.
  3. Internal region or plain's region including plains of Damascus, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Hasaka, and Derra'a. It is located at the east of mountains region.
  4. Semi-desert region, it contains desert plains at the east south dimension of the country near Jordan and Iraq.


spacer.png, 0 kB
spacer.png, 0 kB
spacer.png, 0 kB